The damming of rivers results in hydrological modifications that not only affect the aquatic ecosystem but also adjoining terrestrial systems. Thirteen dams commissioned along the Wujiang River have induced ecological problems, including decreased water turbidity and loss of biodiversity, which potentially influence ecosystem net primary production (NPP) and hence the sequestration, transformation, and storage of carbon. We used terrestrial NPP (NPPT) as a bioindicator to assess the impact of dams on carbon storage in the Wujiang catchment. MODIS satellite and meteorological data were used as inputs to the CASA model to calculate annual NPPT from 2000 to 2014. NPPT was calculated at the catchment and landscape scale to quantify the impact of dams on surrounding terrestrial ecosystems. Mean NPPT was calculated for concentric buffer zones covering a range of spatial extents (0–10 km) from the reservoir shoreline. We found a negligible impact from construction of a single dam on NPPT at the catchment scale. By contrast, the impact of dam construction was scale-dependent, with a stronger landscape-scale effect observed at short distances (i.e., 0–1 km)
from the reservoir. Decreases in NPPT were mainly ascribed to the loss of vegetated land resulting from dam impoundment and subsequent urbanization of the surrounding area.